Oregon, state in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. It is bordered by Washington, across the Columbia R. (N), Idaho, partially
Area: 96,981 sq mi (251,181 sq km).
Population: 2015 estimates 4,028,977
Largest city: Portland.
Motto: The Union.
State bird: Western meadowlark.
State flower: Oregon grape.
State tree: Douglas fir.
Oregon's major sources of farm income are greenhouse products, wheat, cattle (huge herds graze on the plateaus E of the Cascades), and dairy items. Hay, wheat, pears, and onions are important, and the state is one of the nation's leading producers of snap beans, peppermint, sweet cherries (orchards are particularly numerous in the N Willamette Valley), broccoli, and strawberries. Oregon has developed an important and growing wine industry since 1980.
Abundant, cheap electric power is supplied by numerous dams, most notably those on the Columbia River: Bonneville Dam, The Dalles Dam, and McNary Dam. The John Day Dam is one of the largest hydroelectric generators in the world. The dams also aid in flood control and navigation. The Bonneville Dam, in the steep gorge where the Columbia River pierces the Cascades, enables large vessels to travel far inland, and although river traffic is less vital than formerly, the Columbia River cities still serve as transport centers for a vast hinterland to the east.
Oregon's river resources are one of its greatest assets. Its salmon-fishing industry, centered around Astoria, is one of the world's largest; other catches are tuna and crabs. Although mining is still underdeveloped, Oregon leads the nation in the production of nickel.